DUBLIN (AP) The word academic degree has captured the imagination of young people since it was coined by a U.K. university.
The word is now being used to describe degrees, certificates, and diplomas, but in a way that’s not as trendy as its English namesake.
The term is gaining a global audience.
The BBC’s Nick Bryant explains what you need to know.
The U.S. has been using academic degrees since the 1940s, when a young lawyer named Samuel Guggenheim published the first of his 100-page dissertation.
Guglenheim used the term “scholar” to refer to those who specialize in a subject and are paid for their expertise.
His dissertation was a classic in the field of education, the University of Chicago’s most prestigious degree.
It earned him a place in the Guinness Book of World Records.
Guggenham wrote his dissertation because he had a special interest in the education of African-Americans.
He also wanted to help the poor, as he felt that education was an essential element in helping people escape poverty.
In his doctoral dissertation, Gugginheim claimed that black students at the University at Buffalo in the 1880s earned an average of $14,000 per year.
He was also able to prove that African-American teachers in the U.C.B. were much better than white teachers.
Gurgenheim, who was born in England and came to America as a child, earned a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Yale University in 1892.
He received a master’s degree at the New York City Public School system in 1898.
He taught mathematics for four years before moving to New York.
In 1904, Gurgenham moved to the United States and opened a mathematics teaching school at Brooklyn College.
In 1912, he married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist, and they had three children.
They owned a dry goods store.
In 1917, Gogginheim moved to Chicago, where he taught mathematics and philosophy.
Gurgens degree in physics and mathematics earned him the Distinguished Teaching Award from the American Mathematical Society.
He had a Ph.
D. in mathematics in 1924 from the University College, London.
In 1951, Guggenheim was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in the study of dark matter and dark energy.
Guggens wife died in 1952, but Gugens research into the nature of the universe continues.
Gogginham’s theories were controversial, with some of his ideas falling on deaf ears.
In 1955, Goggens physics colleague John von Neumann published an influential paper that challenged his theories.
In the paper, von Neuman wrote that it was “extremely likely” that Gugenheim’s theories could be true.
But Gugenhans book The World as We Know It, which challenged von Neumans, was never published.
Guggens work was never fully debunked.
He became the first Nobel laureate in physics to be awarded a degree in a field, in the form of a doctorate, from Princeton University in 1966.
In 1976, GUGGENHEIM won the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in developing the theory of gravity, which was the basis of Einstein’s theory of relativity.
In 1985, Guge died.GUGGINS MAJOR CHANGESGuggin’s legacy, and his legacy of education and scientific discoveries, continues to influence today’s world.
His son is the current president of the United Nations, and he was the first African-born member of the U-S Congress.
He has been the head of the Harvard University Graduate School of Education since 2013.
In 2016, Gaggin was honored by the National Academy of Sciences with the highest honor in U.N. history.